Petralona cave is located near Nea Moudania, at 300 metres above sea-level on the west foot of Mount Katsika in Halkidiki, Macedonia. It is world famous for the stalactite and stalagmite decoration as well as for a fossilized skull and bones of the Archanthrope of Petralona. The cave was discovered in 1959 by a local of Petralona village called Filippos Hatzaridis.

Six years later, in 1960, the anthropologist and founder of the Anthropological Association of Greece, Aris Poulianos, started systematic excavations on the site. These excavations have brought to light many Paleolithic tools, bones and fossilized animals that have been extinct thousands of years ago. The famous archanthrope of Petralona was discovered in 1960 by another local, Chistos Sarrigiannidis, and is dating from 700,000 years ago. Findings as well as replicas and reconstructions from this exceptionally beautiful cave are exhibited at the Anthropological Museum of Petralona. The cave is open to visitors every day from 9 a.m. until one hour before sunset. Cameras and cell-phones are not allowed as this cave is still being studied and flashed may cause serious damage to the stalactite and stalagmite decoration.